27. Image Sensor Interface (ISI)

The Image Sensor Interface (ISI) supports direct connection to the ITU-R BT. 601/656 8-bit mode compliant sensors and up to 12-bit grayscale sensors. It receives the image data stream from the image sensor on the 12-bit data bus. This module receives up to 12 bits for data, the horizontal and vertical synchronizations and the pixel clock. The reduced pin count alternative for synchronization is supported for sensors that embed SAV (start of active video) and EAV (end of active video) delimiters in the data stream.

The Image Sensor Interface interrupt line is generally connected to the Advanced Interrupt Controller and can trigger an interrupt at the beginning of each frame and at the end of a DMA frame transfer. If the SAV/EAV synchronization is used, an interrupt can be triggered on each delimiter event.

For 8-bit color sensors, the data stream received can be in several possible formats: YCbCr 4:2:2, RGB 8:8:8, RGB 5:6:5 and may be processed before the storage in memory. The data stream may be sent on both preview path and codec path if the bit CODEC_ON in the ISI_CR1 is one. To optimize the bandwidth, the codec path should be enabled only when a capture is required.

In grayscale mode, the input data stream is stored in memory without any processing. The 12-bit data, which represent the grayscale level for the pixel, is stored in memory one or two pixels per word, depending on the GS_MODE bit in the ISI_CR2 register. The codec datapath is not available when grayscale image is selected.